#Dental Treatment #Motivation Scale (DTMS): Study on Periodontal Treatment : #patients #dentistry

Motivational Scale Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioural, cognitive and social areas and is rooted in a basic impulse to optimize wellbeing, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. Motivation also plays an important role in perceived dental competence and treatment seeking behaviour among dental patients. Different theories and models such as the push-pull model and the self-determination theory have sought to explain the various intrinsic and extrinsic influences affecting the patients’ motivation to undergo or refuse treatment.

The role of motivation in dental care is thought to play a major role in influencing dental health behaviour. A previous study which reviewed the behaviour self-regulation model in context of self-care showed that patient motivation was influenced by dental professional and the incentives and rewards offered during the treatment phase. Halvari et al. developed a self-regulation questionnaire for dental treatment which showed that autonomous motivation for dental competence were positively associated with oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance.

The study of Pac et al. assessed motivation among periodontal patients using the zychlinscy scale and found it to be a reliable tool. It also assessed the correlation between the scale and clinical parameters and found that patients with greater motivation had better oral hygiene. However, the tool does not assess the extrinsic and intrinsic influences that motivate the patient to agree for a treatment. Gao et al. assessed the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) in improving oral health through a systematic review and found that four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. The study emphasized on the need for further studies with methodological rigor for a better understanding of the roles of MI in dental practice

There is a definite paucity in studies evaluating the role of motivation in treatment seeking behaviour of periodontal patients. The research hypothesis of this study is that is no significant relationship between motivation and treatment seeking behaviour among periodontal patients. Hence this study is an attempt to assess the role of motivation in periodontal care by using the Dental Treatment Motivation Scale (DTMS) which in itself is a shortened version of a

Self-regulation questionnaire for dental treatment subsequently modified based on a questionnaire used for assessing motivation in Type-2 diabetic patients. Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial disease. Along with microorganisms which are responsible for the initiation of the inflammatory reaction leading to subsequent periodontal tissue loss, several other local and systemic factors have been shown to play important modifying roles in enhancing the inflammatory or destructive effects of microorganisms.

The Dental Treatment Motivation Scale is a modification of Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ). The TSRQ is a set of questionnaires concerning why a subject would engage in healthy behaviour, solicit treatment for some disease, try to change an unhealthy behaviour, follow a treatment regimen or engage in some other health related behaviour. All questionnaires have the same purpose; which is to assess the degree to which one’s motivation for a particular behaviour is autonomous or self-determined.

The instrument used for data collection consisted of sociodemographic questions in addition to the Dental Treatment Motivation Scale (DTMS) questionnaire. The DTMS is a Likert scale composed of 15 items in which 7 (Q no: 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 13 & 15) and 8 (Q no: 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 & 14) questions assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation respectively. The scale measures autonomous and controlled motivations to adopt a healthy attitude towards periodontal treatment. Answers are organized on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. The score of each dimension is obtained by the total sum of all answers of the items in each dimension by the total score. The study was translated into the local language. To check for the consistency the study was back translated into English by two independent bilingual dentists.

MOtivation Scale

The questionnaire showed a good degree of reliability making it a valid tool for periodontal treatment planning. The results of the study showed that the subjects showed high motivation towards periodontal treatment thus rejecting the null hypothesis and accepting the alternate hypothesis. The intrinsic motivation component scored more than the extrinsic component. Motivation is an important component for treatment seeking behaviour.

Overall the study showed a high degree of motivation for treatment seeking behaviour facilitated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Internalization and integration is a process by which extrinsically motivated behaviour can become self-determined. A number of extrinsic factors have also played a small role in motivating treatment related behaviour in this study such as the professional help, appreciation and social acceptability. Dentists can play a major role by facilitating treatment seeking behaviour through professional advice and reinforcements and thus help in integrating and internalizing extrinsic behaviour to an intrinsic motivation. A subjects’ dentist, his peers and his family can play an important role in bringing about a positive health related behaviour. To conclude, the study tested the Dental Treatment Motivation Scale (DTMS) to assess motivation for seeking periodontal therapy. The scale showed good consistency as well as validity and can be used for assessing motivations for other dental treatments as well. The limitation of this study is that the sample size was small and correlation with the actual clinical condition was not carried out. More longitudinal studies with larger samples in a multicentre setting are warranted to further explore the feasibility and acceptability of DTMS.

Reference:

Oruba Z, Pac A, Olszewska–Czyż I, Chomyszyn-Gajewska M. The significance of motivation in periodontal treatment: The influence of adult patients’ motivation on the clinical periodontal status. Community Dental Health [serial online]. September 2014;31(3):183-187. Available from: CINAHL, Ipswich, MA.

About the Author:

Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice from the University of Salford where his Master dissertation subject is the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. Born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and reforming delivery of health care services. His main interest is business consultancy, leadership and entrepreneurship.

Twitter: @hishamsafadi

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Mind and Medicine: Toward #Care in #Medicine and Dentistry by working with #Emotional Intelligence

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To enlarge the medicine and dentistry vision to embrace the impact of emotions, two large implications of the scientific findings must be taken to heart:
1- Helping people better manage their upsetting feelings – anger, anxiety, depression, pessimism and loneliness – is a form of disease prevention. One of the ways to do this would be to impart most basic emotional intelligence skills to children, so that they become long life habits. Another preventive strategy would be to teach emotion management to people reaching retirement age, since emotional well-being is one factor that determines whether an older person decline rapidly or thrives.
2- Many patients can benefit measurably when their psychological needs are attended to along with their purely medical ones. Emotional care is an opportunity too often lost in the way medicine is practiced today ; it is blind spot for medicine
Though more and more patients seek a more humane medicine, it is becoming endangered. The changing culture of medicine itself, as it becomes more responsive to the imperatives of business, is making such care increasingly difficult to find.
On the other hand, there may be a business advantages to humane medicine: treating emotional distress in patients, early evidence suggests, can save money- especially to the extent that it prevents or delays the onset of sickness, or helps patients heal more quickly. Such care also makes patients more satisfied with their physicians and medical treatment. In the emerging medical marketplace , where patients often have the option to choose between competing health plans , satisfaction level will not doubt enter the equation of thses very personal decisions souring experiences can lead patients to go elsewhere for care , while pleasing ones translate into loyalty.
Finally, medical ethics may demand such an approach. There is a clear dimension that psychological factors like depression and social isolation distinguish diseases patients at highest risk means it would be unethical not to start trying to treat these factors.
If the findings on emotions and health mean anything, it is that medical care that neglects how people feel as they battle a chronic or severe disease is no longer adequate. it is time for medicine to take more methodical advantage of the link between emotion and health. Compassion as one patient put it in an open letter to his surgeon, ‘’ is not mere hand holding. It is good medicine’’.

Adapted from: Goleman, D., Goleman, D. and Goleman, D. (2004). Emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.

About the Editor:
Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice the University of Salford where his Master dissertation was in the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. He was born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and investment management. His main interest is business start-up, leadership and mentoring. Currently he is leading several projects in Manchester that is related to enhance patient experience and improving leadership style through education.
Twitter: @hishamsafadi

References:
1- Goleman, D., Goleman, D., & Goleman, D. 2004. Emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury. Pages (183-185)

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The Day When Social Media Did A Change in my life l #socialmedia #growthhacking #SEO #Bigdata

image

It is true that in one point you feel Confidence and re-believe in your salf because you start to use Social media where people you don’t know share your idea On Facebook or retweet one of Your tweets or rebloge your article

Most of Us had face a time where people facing you ignore your thoughts or ideas Or even not listening to You

Looking for Social Media as a tool of marketing and business links is not the principle and Core of Social media it was done for Connecting people with each other

Facebook was a platform for Connecting University Students but before Facebook There was ICQ ‘ Paltalk and MySpace

linkedin goal was to Connect professionals together and not a recruting website ‘ before linkedin doe’s any one remember xing

Twitter was created to share small massages between followers and not a news source

Because of Big data and Technology Development Social media had been modified from it’s original purpose and spreading wider

Social media platforms are trying to give you all service in One place

Think about it
for your personal needs you have the ability to post share photo’s share videos and add Friends and Family members
for Your business you can do marketing Campain and getting feedbacks

But Social Media makes you feel that you are valuable to others because they engaged with your posts or Comments.

Rasalkhaimah, ras, al, khaimah, dubai, university, salford, manchester, @hishamsafadi, hisham, safadi, European, medical, center, business, entrepreneur, startup, economy, money, motivation, education, Leadership,  Transactional,  analysis, emotional, intelligence, organisations,  development,  innovative, technology,  care, health, investor, investment, production, shark, tank, sharktank, USA, UK, London, group, european, canada, india, china, japan, KSA, projectmanagement, datascience, bigdata, IOT, internetofthings, cloud

What are the Leaders Emotions ? By HBR | #leadership #business #emotions #USA #Europe

  

It only took me about three seconds to decide what to wear on the first day in my new gig as strategy director at Genuine Interactive, a digital marketing agency (jeans and a wrinkled linen shirt, duh). Deciding what books to take was a bit trickier.

In the end, I decided to bring only one: The Power of Nice: How to Conquer the Business World with Kindness by Linda Kaplan Thaler and Robin Koval. Sure, the niceness principles in Chapter 1 are great, but what’s most intriguing about the book — especially for a strategy leader — is Chapter 8: Shut Up and Listen.

As strategists (and colleagues, and partners, and friends, and family members) we are often so eager to share what we think are dazzling insights that we cut things short and miss what’s important about a given interaction or relationship.

In a world filled with agencies, most of which offer the same services at roughly the same prices, the ultimate difference between success and failure is whether people want to work with your teams or not. It’s the same on the inside. Tara Back, my former boss and the new head of the event and experience lab at Google, used to say that success in an agency is when everyone wants you as part of their team.

In giving advice to customer experience professionals choosing an agency, Forrester Research advises: “Always consider how well the agency will be able to deliver a painful but necessary piece of advice or how comfortable it will be to work with the agency when something doesn’t go quite to plan.” And that’s where nice comes in. Everyone’s nice when things are going their way, but how nice are you when you find yourself in a tough situation?

In my experience, tough and nice don’t have to be incompatible. The most successful strategists are tough and intensely curious: tabloid reporters without the mean streak. The five goals listed in Chapter 8 are guides worth keeping in mind as my new team and I set strategy and I lead a new team:

Let the other guy (gal) be smarter.The person who desperately tries to be the smartest person in the room inevitably comes off as the least. During one pitch in which I was involved, the client told a strategist he reminded him of Cliff Clavin, the know-it-all postman from the TV show Cheers. (We didn’t win.) I know this is a tough balance — especially for young people starting out who want to show their smarts. But that’s where a little guidance from good mentors comes in.

Keep it simple. Life is complicated enough. Clients and colleagues expect us to be expert enough to keep things simple and easy to follow. It’s a constant struggle to focus more on the story you’re trying to tell than on the slides. But by reminding myself and my team that we’re sitting down with a client to have a nice conversation, we might be able to avoid coming across as the type of people who overly complicate things or act in a way that’s self-important.

Ask don’t tell. Even if you think you know the answer already, it’s worthwhile to ask someone to articulate it for you. You may be pleasantly surprised by what you hear. In my experience, this has the added benefit of conveying respect for work that has already been done and for the people who have done it.

Don’t argue so much. Really. Don’t. Everyone has a style and way of going about understanding and contributing to a project. But in my experience, if you slip from being challenging to being argumentative, your chances of getting chosen for a project or a team go down dramatically.

Everyone is worth a listen. Don’t confuse this with the idea that everyone deserves a medal; some ideas are better than others (enough said). But pretty much all are worth a bit of a listen before moving on.

I have plenty of company in my views: Everyone from Richard Branson to Barrie Bergman has claimed that being nice is in no way incompatible with being successful in business. Need proof? For this, you can turn to another new book, Return on Character: The Real Reason Leaders and Their Companies Win, that just came out and is featured in this month’s Harvard Business Review. It’s based on a seven-year study of 84 CEOS and 8,000 of their employees. Basically, leaders who display integrity, compassion, the ability to forgive and forget, and accountability — who are what most of us would consider nice — deliver five times the return on assets of their counterparts who never or rarely display those traits.

So as I tackle my new job, I’ll be keeping these two things in mind: you can build character if you make it a priority, and nice guys do finish first.


By Harverd Business Review 

How Emotional Intelligence affect Patient Care ? I #emotionlintelligence #patient #healthcare #nurses #USA #UK

The principles of patient-centred care are increasingly stressed as part of health care policy and practice. Explanations for why some practitioners seem more successful in achieving patient-centred care vary, but a possible role for individual differences in personality has been postulated. One of these, emotional intelligence (EI), is increasingly referred to in health care literature. This paper reviews the literature on EI in health care and poses a series of questions about the links between EI and patient-centred outcomes.

Papers concerning empirical examinations of EI in a variety of settings were identified to determine the evidence base for its increasing popularity. The review suggests that a substantial amount of further research is required before the value of EI as a useful concept can be substantiated.

Although work conceptualizing EI was underway in the early 1990s, popular interest in EI arose from Goleman’s ‘Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ’, which suggested that life success depended more on the ability to understand and control emotions than on IQ.14 As is often the case with psychological constructs, the use of a variety of terms makes it difficult to agree on an overarching definition of EI, and it has been referred to as emotional literacy, the emotional quotient, personal intelligence, social intelligence and interpersonal intelligence.15 Perhaps one of the best and most circumspect definitions of EI is ‘a set of abilities (verbal and non-verbal) that enable a person to generate, recognize, express, understand and evaluate their own and others’ emotions in order to guide thinking and action and successfully cope with environmental demands and pressures.’16

Some view EI as a fixed and stable personality trait which is measured using self-report questionnaires of typical behaviour, others see it as a more dynamic personal quality measured using maximal performance measures which quantify actual performance. An example of this would be the difference between asking someone about their problem solving approach and giving them a problem to solve. A self-report format can be open to manipulation through learned or faked responses. However, the validity and reliability of these measures is more established than maximal performance measures, which are less open to faked responses but whose consensus scoring has been criticized for being subjective.

The fact that this conceptual distinction exists has generated much discussion on how best to measure EI and somewhat complicates the comparison of the few empirical studies that have been conducted. Matthews et al.17 have suggested that different measures of EI quantify different things, and in addition that the correspondence between different versions of scales demonstrates lower correlations than would be expected. Perez et al.18 have suggested that trait EI instruments measure emotional self-efficacy while ability measures of EI measure cognitive-emotional ability

EI IN HEALTH CARE

Whilst there has been a recent increase in the discussion of EI in health care literature, most of the references are based on unsubstantiated claims of the theoretical importance of EI and assume that EI is a quality that can be altered or improved. However, there is a small but growing empirical literature which suggests that there may be a role for EI in the health care setting.

If we are to determine whether there is a role for EI in health care, it must be rigorously evaluated where its value is hypothesized. The state of the current evidence base suggests that there are a number of questions which need to be posed before any conclusions as to the usefulness of this construct can be reached. Based on our understanding of the construct of EI and the way in which it has been employed in non-health settings, we addressed the strength of evidence for the relationship between EI and four areas which would seem to be important questions for health care.

  1. How EI in health professionals might impact on patient-centred care, patient satisfaction and quality of care;
  2. How EI might impact on issues of job satisfaction and performance;
  3. Whether EI training for health professionals may impact on personal as well as patient-centred outcomes;
  4. Whether measurement of EI should be part of the selection and recruitment process for health care professionals and students.
 

EI AND PATIENT CARE

Most complaints about doctors relate to poor communication, not clinical competence, and improving communication in health care is a current area of interest in policy and practice. Given the emphasis on insights into one’s own and others’ emotions that are described by models of EI, it might be offered as an explanation for why some practitioners appear to be better at delivering patient-centred care than others.35 Assessing and discriminating patient’s emotions could have an impact on the quality and accuracy of history taking and diagnosis. In addition, if clinicians are able to understand patients’ emotional reactions to prescribed treatments or lifestyle advice they may be better able to understand why some treatments are more or less acceptable to some patients. The ability to manage and read emotions would seem to be an important skill for any health professional and might potentially enhance patient-centred care, improve the quality of the professional-patient relationship, and increase patient levels of satisfaction with care and perhaps even concordance.

Only one study directly examined the impact of EI in practitioners on outcomes relevant to patient care, and it reported only a limited relationship between physician EI and patient satisfaction.36 They administered an EI measure to 30 residents in an academic family medicine department. Only the EI sub-scale of happiness in the residents showed any relationship to satisfaction in the patients they treated.

EI AND JOB SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE

Given that EI is hypothesized to be important in recognizing and processing our own as well as other people’s emotions, higher EI could impact positively on job satisfaction and performance. For example, there can be tensions from many spheres of practice—from the macro (organizational) to the micro (patient/colleague)—which can produce feelings of frustration and anger. Being better equipped to recognize and manage such feelings may allow practitioners to experience fewer incidents of job related stress. Health care practitioners who are disillusioned, over-stressed or burned out are unlikely to be able to deliver good quality care and communicate well with patients.

Three studies have examined relationships between EI, work stress and burnout in health care professionals. One reports the added value of considering the EI of subjects in connection with levels of stress. They described a link between EI and burnout in nurses measured at two different points in time.37 In a similar study of work stress, no direct relationship between EI and work stress was identified, but nurses with more job experience had higher levels of EI.38 In the third study, low EI was associated with higher perceived stress in dental students.39

While the above studies have begun to examine relationships between EI and stress and burnout in individuals, such problems occur within the context of the health care organization. A wider approach to this area may need to examine the organizational culture in which health care is delivered and whether an organization can operate in an emotionally intelligent way to reduce stress and burnout. There is a body of literature which discusses EI at the level of the organization. However, as with the individual-focused research, there is no definitive evidence linking EI to organizational performance

There is an increasing interest in the construct of EI. The construct has certain face validity and despite little empirical work is proving attractive in many areas, including health care, where the search for abilities and characteristics which can improve the patient-centred qualities of health care professionals and ways in which we can improve training goes on. However, on the basis of the literature we have reviewed it would seem a pity if EI were to be accepted as unquestioningly in health care as it has been in other settings.

The construct of EI is not without its critics and problems. There are difficulties in agreement over its conceptualization—whether it is a dynamic quality which can be trained or improved, or a more fixed personality trait. There is little published empirical work and much of the data that are collected are held in proprietary databases which are not available for independent scrutiny. All of these problems make comparison of the few studies available difficult, and critics of EI suggest that these problems are sufficiently serious to make the construct of EI irrelevant and unusable; however, there are others who, whilst recognizing the problems, nevertheless feel the construct has sufficient promise to merit further attention but call for careful scientific study and caution the claims for its use until further work is done. It would seem premature to discount EI as a useful tool for health care settings completely, but it does require a rigorous examination before any real claims about its utility can be made.

While these limitations may seem damning to the construct of EI and its future use, similar debates have taken and still take place in the measurement of many psychological constructs, including standard intelligence (IQ) and many other measures of ability and personality, and EI is therefore not unique in having such criticisms levelled at it. For example, some may argue that empathy is a skill which can be developed and is one of the aims of medical school curricula which stress patient-centred care. Others may suggest that empathy is inherent in personality and a core characteristic of a person which is unresponsive to training and education. In reality, the likelihood is that for both empathy and EI the truth may lie somewhere in the middle, with contributions from personality, the culture of the health care organizational environment and personal life experience.

 R Soc Med. 2007 Aug; 100(8): 368–374.doi:  10.1258/jrsm.100.8.368

Emotional Intelligence and Patient Centred Care

PMCID: PMC1939962
1 Research Fellow, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
2 Professor of Primary and Community Care, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1939962/

Rasalkhaimah, ras, al, khaimah, dubai, university, salford, manchester, @hishamsafadi, hisham, safadi, European, medical, center, business, entrepreneur, startup, economy, money, motivation, education, Leadership,  Transactional,  analysis, emotional, intelligence, organisations,  development,  innovative, technology,  care, health, investor, investment, production, shark, tank, sharktank, USA, UK, London, group, european, canada, india, china, japan, KSA, projectmanagement, datascience, bigdata, IOT, internetofthings, cloud