#Dental Treatment #Motivation Scale (DTMS): Study on Periodontal Treatment : #patients #dentistry

Motivational Scale Motivation has been shown to have roots in physiological, behavioural, cognitive and social areas and is rooted in a basic impulse to optimize wellbeing, minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure. Motivation also plays an important role in perceived dental competence and treatment seeking behaviour among dental patients. Different theories and models such as the push-pull model and the self-determination theory have sought to explain the various intrinsic and extrinsic influences affecting the patients’ motivation to undergo or refuse treatment.

The role of motivation in dental care is thought to play a major role in influencing dental health behaviour. A previous study which reviewed the behaviour self-regulation model in context of self-care showed that patient motivation was influenced by dental professional and the incentives and rewards offered during the treatment phase. Halvari et al. developed a self-regulation questionnaire for dental treatment which showed that autonomous motivation for dental competence were positively associated with oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance.

The study of Pac et al. assessed motivation among periodontal patients using the zychlinscy scale and found it to be a reliable tool. It also assessed the correlation between the scale and clinical parameters and found that patients with greater motivation had better oral hygiene. However, the tool does not assess the extrinsic and intrinsic influences that motivate the patient to agree for a treatment. Gao et al. assessed the effect of motivational interviewing (MI) in improving oral health through a systematic review and found that four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. The study emphasized on the need for further studies with methodological rigor for a better understanding of the roles of MI in dental practice

There is a definite paucity in studies evaluating the role of motivation in treatment seeking behaviour of periodontal patients. The research hypothesis of this study is that is no significant relationship between motivation and treatment seeking behaviour among periodontal patients. Hence this study is an attempt to assess the role of motivation in periodontal care by using the Dental Treatment Motivation Scale (DTMS) which in itself is a shortened version of a

Self-regulation questionnaire for dental treatment subsequently modified based on a questionnaire used for assessing motivation in Type-2 diabetic patients. Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial disease. Along with microorganisms which are responsible for the initiation of the inflammatory reaction leading to subsequent periodontal tissue loss, several other local and systemic factors have been shown to play important modifying roles in enhancing the inflammatory or destructive effects of microorganisms.

The Dental Treatment Motivation Scale is a modification of Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ). The TSRQ is a set of questionnaires concerning why a subject would engage in healthy behaviour, solicit treatment for some disease, try to change an unhealthy behaviour, follow a treatment regimen or engage in some other health related behaviour. All questionnaires have the same purpose; which is to assess the degree to which one’s motivation for a particular behaviour is autonomous or self-determined.

The instrument used for data collection consisted of sociodemographic questions in addition to the Dental Treatment Motivation Scale (DTMS) questionnaire. The DTMS is a Likert scale composed of 15 items in which 7 (Q no: 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 13 & 15) and 8 (Q no: 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 & 14) questions assess intrinsic and extrinsic motivation respectively. The scale measures autonomous and controlled motivations to adopt a healthy attitude towards periodontal treatment. Answers are organized on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. The score of each dimension is obtained by the total sum of all answers of the items in each dimension by the total score. The study was translated into the local language. To check for the consistency the study was back translated into English by two independent bilingual dentists.

MOtivation Scale

The questionnaire showed a good degree of reliability making it a valid tool for periodontal treatment planning. The results of the study showed that the subjects showed high motivation towards periodontal treatment thus rejecting the null hypothesis and accepting the alternate hypothesis. The intrinsic motivation component scored more than the extrinsic component. Motivation is an important component for treatment seeking behaviour.

Overall the study showed a high degree of motivation for treatment seeking behaviour facilitated by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Internalization and integration is a process by which extrinsically motivated behaviour can become self-determined. A number of extrinsic factors have also played a small role in motivating treatment related behaviour in this study such as the professional help, appreciation and social acceptability. Dentists can play a major role by facilitating treatment seeking behaviour through professional advice and reinforcements and thus help in integrating and internalizing extrinsic behaviour to an intrinsic motivation. A subjects’ dentist, his peers and his family can play an important role in bringing about a positive health related behaviour. To conclude, the study tested the Dental Treatment Motivation Scale (DTMS) to assess motivation for seeking periodontal therapy. The scale showed good consistency as well as validity and can be used for assessing motivations for other dental treatments as well. The limitation of this study is that the sample size was small and correlation with the actual clinical condition was not carried out. More longitudinal studies with larger samples in a multicentre setting are warranted to further explore the feasibility and acceptability of DTMS.

Reference:

Oruba Z, Pac A, Olszewska–Czyż I, Chomyszyn-Gajewska M. The significance of motivation in periodontal treatment: The influence of adult patients’ motivation on the clinical periodontal status. Community Dental Health [serial online]. September 2014;31(3):183-187. Available from: CINAHL, Ipswich, MA.

About the Author:

Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice from the University of Salford where his Master dissertation subject is the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. Born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and reforming delivery of health care services. His main interest is business consultancy, leadership and entrepreneurship.

Twitter: @hishamsafadi

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Mind and Medicine: Toward #Care in #Medicine and Dentistry by working with #Emotional Intelligence

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To enlarge the medicine and dentistry vision to embrace the impact of emotions, two large implications of the scientific findings must be taken to heart:
1- Helping people better manage their upsetting feelings – anger, anxiety, depression, pessimism and loneliness – is a form of disease prevention. One of the ways to do this would be to impart most basic emotional intelligence skills to children, so that they become long life habits. Another preventive strategy would be to teach emotion management to people reaching retirement age, since emotional well-being is one factor that determines whether an older person decline rapidly or thrives.
2- Many patients can benefit measurably when their psychological needs are attended to along with their purely medical ones. Emotional care is an opportunity too often lost in the way medicine is practiced today ; it is blind spot for medicine
Though more and more patients seek a more humane medicine, it is becoming endangered. The changing culture of medicine itself, as it becomes more responsive to the imperatives of business, is making such care increasingly difficult to find.
On the other hand, there may be a business advantages to humane medicine: treating emotional distress in patients, early evidence suggests, can save money- especially to the extent that it prevents or delays the onset of sickness, or helps patients heal more quickly. Such care also makes patients more satisfied with their physicians and medical treatment. In the emerging medical marketplace , where patients often have the option to choose between competing health plans , satisfaction level will not doubt enter the equation of thses very personal decisions souring experiences can lead patients to go elsewhere for care , while pleasing ones translate into loyalty.
Finally, medical ethics may demand such an approach. There is a clear dimension that psychological factors like depression and social isolation distinguish diseases patients at highest risk means it would be unethical not to start trying to treat these factors.
If the findings on emotions and health mean anything, it is that medical care that neglects how people feel as they battle a chronic or severe disease is no longer adequate. it is time for medicine to take more methodical advantage of the link between emotion and health. Compassion as one patient put it in an open letter to his surgeon, ‘’ is not mere hand holding. It is good medicine’’.

Adapted from: Goleman, D., Goleman, D. and Goleman, D. (2004). Emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.

About the Editor:
Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice the University of Salford where his Master dissertation was in the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. He was born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and investment management. His main interest is business start-up, leadership and mentoring. Currently he is leading several projects in Manchester that is related to enhance patient experience and improving leadership style through education.
Twitter: @hishamsafadi

References:
1- Goleman, D., Goleman, D., & Goleman, D. 2004. Emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury. Pages (183-185)

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Effects of occupational regulations on the cost of dental services: Evidence from #dental insurance claims #USA

dentalinsurance

In the United States, occupational regulations influence the work tasks that may legally be performed by dentists and dental hygienists. Only a dentist may legally perform most dental procedures; however, a smaller list of basic procedures may be provided by either a dentist or a dental hygienist. Since dentists and hygienists possess different levels of training and skill and receive very different wages, it is plausible that these regulations could distort the optimal allocation of skills to work tasks. We present simple theoretical framework that shows different ways that such regulations might affect the way that dentists and dental hygienists are used in the production of dental services. We then use a large database of dental insurance claims to study the effects of the regulations on the prevailing prices of a set of basic dental services. Our empirical analysis exploits variation across states and over time in the list of services that may be provided by either type of worker. Our main results suggest that the task-specific occupational regulations increase prices by about 12%. We also examine the effects of related occupational regulations on the utilization of basic dental services. We find that allowing insurers to directly reimburse hygienists for their work increases one year utilization rates by 3–4 percentage points.

In the dental sector, state governments have expanded the legal scope of practice afforded to dental hygienists. It is still true in every state that dentists and hygienists are required to hold licenses, and that only a dentist may legally perform most dental procedures. But in recent years, licensed dental hygienists have gained the authority to perform a smaller list of basic procedures. The content of the list of services that may be provided by either a dentist or a hygienist varies across states and over time. In some cases, allowing hygienists to perform a service may open the possibility of hygienist-led firms. However, the regulations usually restrict what hygienists are allowed to do with and without the direct supervision of a dentist, which suggests that the overlapping regulatory framework is likely to matter most to firms that employ both dentists and hygienists.

Simple economic theory suggests that increasing the independent scope of practice of hygienists should put downward pressure on the prevailing price of dental services that can be produced using hygienist labour. The price effect is plausible whether the regulations are framed as a barrier to the entry of hygienist-led dental service firms, or as a restriction on the production function of firms that combine hygienist and dentist labour inputs to produce dental services. Although the end result is similar, the production function framework is more revealing about the ways that scope of practice regulations might affect market outcomes in the health sector. For instance, regulations might represent monitoring requirements that function as an implicit tax on the use of hygienists. Another possibility is that task limitations are a type of factor de-augmenting technology, which lowers the productivity of hygienists. More broadly, scope of practice regulations may alter the elasticity of substitution between hygienists and dentist in the production process. In each case, the regulations bind when at least some firms are forced to adopt a more dentist intensive production process then they would use in the absence of regulation. The upshot is that scope of practice restrictions – either entry barriers or production constraints – could lead to higher equilibrium prices relative to an unregulated or less regulated environment.

It have been studied the effects of a task based graded occupational licensing scheme that affects the way that dentists and dental hygienists are used to produce dental services. By presenting a simple theoretical model that helps explain some of the ways that such regulations might affect the dental service production function. A simple implication of the model is that the regulations lead to a more dentist intensive production process, which is likely to affect the equilibrium price of dental services. The use of a quasi-experimental approach to study the effects of the regulations on prevailing prices using data from dental insurance claims. The results showed that the price of basic dental services were about 12% higher when the service could only be provided by a dentist rather than by either a dentist or a dental hygienist. These results were quite robust to key assumptions related to spill over effects and statistical inference. In further analysis, the found that utilization of dental services is 3–4 percentage points higher when hygienists can be reimbursed directly for their services, which is an important gain given well-documented disparities in dental health and access to dental care. Overall, the results are consistent with the constrained production function model presented in the paper.

In most instances, the costs and benefits of licensing are difficult to empirically assess because licenses, almost by definition, make it difficult to construct reasonable comparison groups that can be used to estimate the levels of key health and economic outcomes under alternative policies. Cross-state comparisons are the most common way to proceed (Kleiner, 2000 and Kleiner, 2006), but these methods make it difficult to separate the effects of licensing changes from state-specific trends in the demand and supply for the affected services. In a broader sense, most of the licensing literature examines the effects of licensing on wages rather than on the prices that prevail in related product markets. By focusing on service-specific regulations, the ability to compare the effects of regulations within the same state by comparing prices in different product markets that should share similar underlying demand and supply conditions was enhanced. By studying prices rather than wages, the analysis gave a different perspective on the way that licensing restrictions affects consumers.

Another contribution comes from the analysis of graded licensing regulations. The bulk of the licensing literature frames policy discussions in terms of licensing, certification, and free entry options. This may be a natural statement of policy options, but there are very few examples of occupations that have been de-licensed in the United States (Kleiner, 2006). The graded licensing approach that was discussed in Arrow (1963) may offer an alternative approach that can reduce the economic disadvantages of licensing without overtly deregulating an incumbent occupational group.

The explicit link between job tasks and skill levels that is built into scope of practice regulations seems to fit well into the labour economics literature that is concerned with the factors shaping recent changes in the structure of wages (Acemoglu and Autor, 2011, Autor et al., 2003 and Goldin and Katz, 2008). Occupational regulations have not been examined much in that literature, which has instead focused mainly on the slowdown in the supply of skills, increases in demand for skill produced (perhaps) by skill biased technological change, changes in international trade that have led to the “off-shoring” of certain types of work, and changes in labor market institutional structures such as labor unions and minimum wage levels (Autor et al., 2008). One conceptual insight from the wage structure literature that may be particularly useful for research on occupational regulation is the idea of separating the concept of the skills possessed by different workers from the concept of the job tasks that workers perform in the economy (Acemoglu and Autor, 2011 and Autor et al., 2003). This perspective seems to apply very naturally to the notion of scope of practice regulations, although it does not appear to have been considered in this way in previous work.

Reference:

Wing C, Marier A. Effects of occupational regulations on the cost of dental services: Evidence from dental insurance claims. Journal Of Health Economics [serial online]. March 2014;34:131-143.

About the Author:

Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice the University of Salford where his Master dissertation was in the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. He was born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and investment management. His main interest is business start-up, leadership and mentoring. Currently he is leading several projects in Manchester that is related to enhance patient experience and improving leadership style through education.

Twitter: @hishamsafadi

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What is Evidence-based Dentistry. Definition and Outlines? #dentist #healthcare

Evidence-based Dentistry (EBD) is a method for rapidly aggregating, distilling and implementing the best evidence in clinical practice. To accomplish a successful EBD it requires the integration of the best clinical practice, clinical judgement together with patient’s values and circumstances to improve healthcare.

The development of the evidence-based dentistry were delayed as an approach to healthcare, although this delayed had been a main driver for the development of EBD nowadays. The early development of EBD was criticised for focusing on evidence from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews of evidence, but the past decade has been development of systematic review methodology for a range of study designs. The availability of high-quality systematic reviews is increasing through the work of groups and increased use of these reviews will improve the quality of evidence available for decision-making.

Clinical expertise is a key element and this can and will vary significantly. Experience in providing one type of treatment or using certain materials, procedures or equipment’s will vary.

Patient’s values play a crucial rule in evidence-based practice, but articulating these values is a challenge for some of them. It is important to recognise the major stakeholders for value system which are involved in clinical decision (the patients, the dentist and the third-party payer). Recognising this, and engaging patients in simultaneous discussion about values, evidence and clinical judgment will help improve the quality of the provided care.

The main reason to implement EBD is to improve the quality of care, another factor has been the increasing involvement of patients in healthcare decision-making. The driver for this is the enormous amount of information that is available today which is in the form of books, journals and the internet.

Evidence-based Practice is a set of methods for rapidly aggregating, distilling and implementing the best clinical information in clinical practice. The approach consist of five steps which are:

  • Asking answerable questions
  • Searching for the best evidence.
  • Critically appraising the evidence.
  • Applying the evidence.
  • Evaluating the evidence.

While most clinical will not engage in developing evidence, they can relatively easily become effective user of evidence.

In conclusion Evidence-based Practice is a structural approach for clinical decision-making that assists the practitioners in finding, distilling and applying the best evidence in clinical practice by managing the problem of information overload and uncertainty.

Adapted from Evidence-based Dentistry: Managing information for Better Practice
Richards, D. (2007). Evidence-based dentistry. London: Quintessence.

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What Dentists Should NOT say to Patients? Critical Thinking Paper 2015 #Dentists #Patients #Healthcare

dentist

I may receive negative feedback from my dental colleagues in regards to the title of this paper, with all the respect I am not defining any dentists and I am asking my dental colleagues who are concerned to read this paper till the end. I believe that thinking in positive way may lead dentists to be aware about their dialogue with their patients focusing on choosing the right terms and explanations to choose what to say and not to patients. It is a fact when dentist is able to develop his emotional intelligence and self-awareness he or she as a dentist will be able to enhance the trust level with his or her patients.

Back to the subject of the paper things that dentists in general says to their patients not necessary to be during a treatment plan session or a diagnosis session , it may rise during a general chat with the patients in front of the reception desk or at the waiting area.

In this paper I am not aiming to discuss dental practice ethics or dental fraud practice, I am looking to argue the thoughts and words that may dentists use during their conversation with patients and may develop a non-sense fear for patients.

  • Dentist are saying to their patients to have fluoride dosage in any form of intake. That’s a wrong say, in fact dentists shall explain further to their patients that an extra intake of fluoride will be causing poisoning for the patient. In 2012 Harvard study showed disturbing evidence that fluoridation greatly affect brain. Studies also begging to link fluoride effects on the brain to Alzheimer’s.
  • Dentist shall not say that removing a wisdom tooth or a third molar at early age is less traumatic. That is wrong. Studies shows that only 10-12% of people will develop impacted wisdom tooth that need a removal in one day. Yet dentists are claiming that 85% of wisdom teeth need to be extracted (Jay W. Freedman, 2012).
  • Don’t say that Amalgam fillings and silver fillings are not dangerous. Although your patients may seek the cheapest filling you shall advise them on the harmful content of amalgam and silver fillings. These fillings are primarily in question for their mercury content, about 1,000 mg.  Amalgam fillings contain more mercury than any other product you or your patient may know. Mercury poisoning can affect the body’s neurological, immunological, and endocrinological processes.  Mercury hinders the body’s ability to detoxify itself which leads to further illnessDentists are taught that because the mercury is bound with other metals, mercury does not leak into the patient’s body.  However, studies show that mercury vapour can be measured from the tip of an amalgam filled tooth.  The fact that this vapour can be measured, means that mercury is leaking into the body (Dr. Joseph Mercola).
  • Dental X-ray’s shall be taken every 6 month or yearly. Dentist should not ask, advice or convince their patients as part of their yearly visit to have another Dental X-ray to maintain a proper dental record. That’s wrong. We are exposed to more radiation today than ever before in human history. Airplanes, cell phones, x-rays, even our food contributes to our radiation levels.  Radiation is cumulative over the body’s lifetime. Radiation has been linked to thyroid cancer and brain tumours even small babies in those women who were administered a dental x-ray during their pregnancy. “The mistaken assumption is that the ultraviolet light from the sun is comparable to the penetrating photons of x-rays and gamma rays. … Ultraviolet radiation does not penetrate past the skin, it does not cause cancer of internal organs such as the tongue, lungs, breast, pancreas, colon, etc. Ultraviolet light can cause cancers of the skin (and probably some cancers of the eye). X-rays can cause cancer not only of the skin, but also of any internal organ exposed by the x-ray beam.” (By John W. Gofman, M.D., Ph.D., and Egan O’Connor. My advice, skip the x-ray if it is just a regular dental check-up.
  • Latest technologies can solve dental problems. That’s wrong. Dentist who are claiming that without modern dentistry patients will be toothless are not aware what are the benefits of Practical Dental Care. I had read a lot of stories about people who are fighting cancer and all it started with led tooth filling.

In my point of view dentists shall advise on brushing and flossing daily, the most simple and logical step that patients can take to proactively care for their teeth.  By using fluoride-free toothpaste!  Secondly, eating a healthy, whole foods, nutrient rich diet can impact patient’s dental health more than they know.  Sure we overhear that sugar will result in occurring of cavities, but did patients know that they can actually reverse tooth decay without ever going to see a dentist? Dentist role is more just than performing diagnosis and treatment, it is more to be a role of a magician to draw smiles on faces and not only treat caries.

Finally, did dentists know that a one case of two Laminate veneers worth the filling of 4 molars and 2 incisors with less efforts and much profit.

About the Author:

Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS in Dental Surgery & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice from the University of Salford where his Master dissertation was in the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. He was born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and investment management. His main interest is business start-up, leadership and mentoring. The dentist personality in Dr.Safadi still rising his concerns about the dental field and encourage him to work developing dental practice policy and enhance dental patients awareness and improving their rights. Currently he is leading several projects in Manchester that is related to enhance patient experience and improving leadership style through education.

Twitter: @hishamsafadi

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White Paper: Why Dentists shall care about Dental Assistance Role? #nurses #dentists #care

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In any dental practices dental assistance are playing an important role in organising, managing and assisting dentist to perform treatments for dental patients. Dentists and dental practice owners shall be aware about the importance of developing dental assistance staff skills and knowledge. In this white paper we will be reviewing number of literatures that discuss the importance of developing staff skills and what are the benefits of staff engagement to the performance outcomes of dental practices.

Most of literatures agreed that dental assistances formed important part of internal stakeholders for any dental practice. Adding to that dental assistances are categorised as high power with high impact role as a stakeholder. Mauno,Kinnunen and Ruokolainen (2007, cited in The King’s Fund, 2012a) concluded that the best predictor of staff engagement to give them control over how they work. This is important in improving healthcare performance because staff engagement enhances patient experience and increases staff satisfaction (The King’s Fund, 2012a). The challenges also is reflecting on the dental practices too. In the literature listening to employees is regarded an important communication skill that leaders need to develop and it is a form of staff engagement (Macmillan, 2011). The latter is one of the Leadership management at the dental practice dimensions that recognized its role in quality improvement as engaging the team of the dental facility leads to improve patient and staff experience and enhanced overall outcomes (NHS employers, 2013).

In addition to that, the service profit chain framework highlights the importance of staff including dental assistances satisfaction as well and its overall contribution to enhanced profitability through providing quality services to the patients (Storey & Holti, 2013). The link between staff and patient satisfaction is evident in a staff survey cited by West and Dawson in The King’s Fund (2012a) where they stated that staff engagement leads to patient satisfaction.

The King’s fund (2014b) described staff engagement as the driver that influences staff behaviours leading to better health, lower absenteeism, job satisfaction and reduced turnover which will, besides other factors, improve patient satisfaction, increase profits and eventually enhance the overall performance.

Although there are some dental facilities culture are supportive of staff engagement, the dental facility management’s findings report that staff and specially dental assistances are cultured to carry out orders based on certain working circumstances such as fear of doing things wrong, losing their job or being subject to increase in working load. There is an effort by the dental facilities to engage staff and the progress evaluation for those efforts is acceptable. Staff involvement and supporting staff with a ‘can do attitude’ supports organisational innovation and performance (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008). The Kings Fund (2012) reports that engaged staff deliver better outcomes for patients and organisations.

There is an opportunity to improve dental engagement which may lead to override the poor staff engagement which is slowing the organisation’s achievement of objectives. According to Clark and Nath (2014), medical engagement should lead to enhanced clinical and organisational outcomes and makes a critical contribution to achieving innovation and improvement for patients. Meanwhile, another report from Dixon et al. (2011) concludes that general practice has an important contribution to make to improve public health and in reducing health inequalities. However the National Leadership and Innovation Agency for Healthcare (2008) argued that clinical and staff engagement remains a hollow sound-bite, with little in the way of levers, budgets and power to support it, and becomes merely an option to participate in a committee rather than an opportunity to encourage real practical change at a practice level on an ongoing basis.

Dentists and dental practice owners shall be able to identify poor staff engagement in their dental facilities and concluding that their strategy towards improving staff engagement is facing failure and could not depend only on a reward and punishment strategy. It is important to accept the fact that creating an engaging atmosphere where value is given to the ideas of the staff will result in proper communication and staff engagement and give accountability to the staff for self-management.

The style of the organisation enhance by empowering management leadership decisions, improving staff engagement and evaluating the outcomes of organisation performance. According to West et al. (2014), if dentists and managers create a positive, supportive environment for staff, the staff in turn creates a caring and supportive environment and deliver higher-quality care for patients. The need for full staff and especially dental assistance engagement remains a core of organisational success and service sustainability (Naylor and Appleby, 2012, p15).

It is the responsibility of dentists and dental practice owners as team leader to motivate, inform, and communicate openly whilst allowing the staff to contribute through dialogue between themselves and management (Human resources management, 2011)

About the Author:

Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice form the University of Salford where his Master dissertation was in the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. He was born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and investment management. His main interest is business start-up, leadership and mentoring. Currently he is leading several projects in Manchester that is related to enhance patient experience and improving leadership style through education.

Twitter: @hishamsafadi

@hishamsafadi

References:

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How to Plan a Project to Enhance your Dental Practice Outcomes? #dentists #business #startup #management

dental project

Dental practices are part of the service industry.  As in any service-based business, it is in need for development and upgrading of services, equipment’s and quality of services. These development can be in the form of purchasing new equipment’s, training staff or implementing new technologies to serve patients.

It is important for dental practice owners and dentists to apply project management when thinking in developing their practices. Some of ideas are needed so good planning is a factor of success, while other ideas are not needed so planning will show you what the other options are without wasting time, money and efforts.

A project is a unique venture or piece of work, which is setup to achieve a particular objective or goal. Project is carried out for patients. Any project has a begging and an end so it is time limited. In projects we uses defined resources such as staff, money and equipment’s.

In a wide scope of definition project management is planning, gathering and managing the resources needed to achieve particular goals and objectives within defined time and budgetary constraints.

Project Scope is a statement which defines the limitation and boundaries of a project is the project scope. The statement will outline and define the work stream, resources and budget. Scope deviation and the presence of other issues or elements will result in increased timescale, costs and possible project failure (Lewis, 2007).

Looking to the key features of projects we find that focusing on projects results, outcomes and goals are prioritised. Other features are the positive and effective management of time and resources.

Option appraisal in project management is an integral part of an effective selection process. It has been stated that optional appraisal is an essential tool to help organisations to deliver projects and that it helps to target investment towards improving service performance and raising standards (CIPFA, 2010).

Before initiating any project we shall define the main stakeholders. Defining stakeholders is an important element for any successful project implementation. In general dentistry sector stakeholders are the patients, nursing staff, dentists, health authorities, shareholders and administrative staff.

The following points are summarising the key features of project management:

1- Stakeholders:

Before the initiation of any business plan, it is mandatory to measure its expected outcomes among the prospective stakeholders. The stakeholders of the healthcare management system will include patients, physicians, and administrative employees of the hospital. Moreover, the stakeholders will be appreciated for their involvement and feedback in the system (Trockel, 2013).

2- Aims, goals and objectives.

Each Dental Practice can set the SMART goals of their project.

3- Project life-cycle.

Project can be implemented and achieved in the agreed time frame.

4- Scoping, risk assessment and cost-benefit-analysis.

The statement will outline and define the work stream, resources and budget. Scope deviation and the presence of other issues or elements will result in increased timescale, costs and possible project failure (Lewis, 2007). Managing risks and issues is fundamental to successful project management, where excellent project teams recognize that there are many threats which may undermine performance (Milton et al., 2005). Project Cost include direct and indirect costs.

5- Project planning and deliverables.

The steps which the project leader are planning to take in order to achieve the project goals and objectives.

6- Work breakdown structure and packages.

The project team. Mainly formed from the dental practice staff with external consultant if project required too such as a quality consultant or an IT consultant.

7- Communicating and reporting.

Communication is essentially the interpersonal process of sending and receiving information and messages (Burke & Barron, 2007). The communication strategy will include formal and/or informal links between stakeholders, suppliers, contractors, companies and project team members. The communication method will include minutes of meetings, telephones, emails, and presentation and evaluation reports.

8- Review and Evaluation Method:

An evaluation research approach introduced by Moule and Hek (2011) can be used to measure the proposed service improvement via the project using a quantitative methodology. Research will be conducted by developing a questionnaire using a Likert scale (Bell, 2005) as a measurable indicator, whilst allowing for some qualitative feedback through stakeholders comments. The justification for this approach is the large number of the patient stakeholder category to survey within a limited time. However, disadvantages include: the impact of variables.

Finally project leadership strategy is one of the most important elements in accomplishing project’s required outcome. Leaders for any project are required to demonstrate an improved understanding of stakeholders’ requirements and feedback which will lead to more efficient communication and better project leadership decisions (Heagney, 2012). A collaboration leadership style is the preferred approach for dental projects. Collaboration defines teamwork as occurring when people work collaboratively towards a common goal or as a process of two or more parties working together to achieve common objectives (Burke & Barron, 2007, p223).

 

About the Author:

Dr.Hisham M Safadi (Hisham Safadi ) BDS & MSc Leadership and Management in Health Care Practice form the University of Salford where his Master dissertation was in the effect of Emotional Intelligence on improving Dentistry care in Middle East. He was born and raised in the Emirates of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Dr.Safadi had start his professional career as a dentist then turn to the field of managing medical facilities and investment management. His main interest is business start-up, leadership and mentoring. Currently he is leading several projects in Manchester that is related to enhance patient experience and improving leadership style through education.

Twitter: @hishamsafadi

Read more from the Author:

  1. Leadership in Dentistry Opportunities and Threats. Review 2008 by Dr.Hisham Safadi
  2. Why shall Healthcare Providers care about Patients Payments and Finance?
  3. 12 successful elements for Business Start-ups Leadership.
  4. Why Patients Don’t Come Back? White Paper 2015

References:

  • Bell, J. (2005). Doing your Research Project (4th). United Kingdom: Open University Press.
  • Burke, R. and Barron, S. (2007). Project management leadership. [United States?]: Burke Publishing. ppl 223-235
  • CIPFA, (2010). The Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy, General guidance on options appraisal | CIPFA. [online] Cipfa.org. Available at: http://www.cipfa.org/ [Accessed 29 Apr. 2015].
  • Heagney, J. (2012). Fundamentals of project management (4th Edition). New York: American Management Association.
  • Lewis, J.P. (2007). Fundamentals of Project Management (3rd). New York: American Management Association.
  • Milton D, Rosenau, M. and Githens, G. (2005). Successful project management. Hoboken, N.J.: J. Wiley.
  • Moule, P. & Hek, G. (2011). Making Sense of Research (4th). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Trockel, M. (2013). How to Negotiate. InThe Academic Medicine Handbook (pp. 315-322). New York: Springer. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-5693-3_39#page-1 on 8th April, 2015.

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Health, healthcare, leader, leadership, business, organisation, start up, emotion, intelligence, emotional intelligence, scale, research, study, big data, science, Salford, Dubai, university, Saudi, united Arab emirates, Arab , middle, east, Egypt, Qatar, Jordan, , free zone, industrial, talent, management, entrepreneur, nation, Manchester, hisham, safadi, hishamsafadi, , ras al khaimah, UAE, Abu Dhabi, dentistry, dental, patients, staff, employee, government, conflict, compete, growth hacking, marketing, sales, management, administration, nurses, doctors, business plan, talent management, USA, United, State, Kingdom, UK, Europe, Auditing, White, paper, white paper, project, project management, HK, twitter, facebook, linkedin, social, media, social media, news, platforms, apple, android, google, MSN, yahoo, article, must read, read, references, resources, risk,